- If you have not already done so, choose Storage Policies from the Configuration menu.
- Click New.
- Enter the following fields:
Policy Class: The name of the new policy you are creating. The policy class name must be unique. You cannot enter the name of an existing policy class.
Note: If you use upper-class characters when entering the policy class name, the name is converted to lower-case characters when the policy class is created.
- Policy Type: Click the Storage Manager tab to create a policy for StorNext Storage Manager.
- Click Configure to continue.
- Enter information on the General, Relocation, Steering, Schedule and Associated Directories tabs. See the sections following for more information about fields on these tabs.
- When you are finished entering information about the new policy, click Apply, or click Cancel to exit without saving.
- After the Status page informs you that the policy was created successfully, click OK.
The General tab contains parameters that apply to all storage policies. Fields marked with an asterisk are required. Enter additional fields as desired, or accept the displayed default values.
The General tab contains the following fields:
|File Age Before Copy is Made||
This value determines the minimum number of minutes, hours or days a file must reside unmodified on disk before it is considered a candidate for copying to storage media. Enter the number in the first field, and the unit of measure in the second pull-down field. The minimum value is 1 minute. The default value is 5 minutes.
Note: A minimum of one hundred files is required to trigger the copy after 1 minute.
|File Age Before Truncation||This value determines the minimum number of minutes, hours or days a file must reside on a disk unaccessed before it is considered a candidate for truncation. Truncation removes the disk blocks of a stored file, but not the file itself. Enter the number in the first field, and the unit of measure in the second pull-down field. The minimum value is 5 minutes.|
|Age of Inactive Versions to Clean||This value defines a time in Days, Weeks, or Years when all inactive versions for a deleted file are automatically removed from the database.|
|Default Media Type||Select the media type that applies to devices associated with this policy. When creating a policy, the Default Media Type you select applies to all defined copies in the policy unless overridden in the policy. For additional information, see The Steering Tab.|
|Truncate File Immediately After Store||Enable this option (check this box) to truncate files immediately after they are stored.|
|Clean Database When File Removed||If this option is enabled (the box is checked), StorNext cleans or consolidates the database after a file is removed.|
|Generate Checksum||If this option is enabled, (the box is checked), checksums are generated and retained in the database for files stored by the corresponding policy.|
|Validate Checksum||If this option is enabled (the box is checked), checksums are compared to retained values for the files retrieved by the corresponding policy. The Checksum feature consumes additional space in the StorNext database whether it is enabled or not. When disabled, this feature consumes approximately 2 bytes per stored file; when enabled, this feature consumes approximately 18 bytes per stored file. The database stores data in files on the host computer, so the increase in database size translates to a corresponding increase in disk space requirements. The exact amount of space consumed (whether the feature is enabled or disabled) may vary.|
|Alternate Store Location||Provides an automatic system for copying files from a main instance of StorNext to a remote instance of StorNext at the same time as copies are made to tertiary storage at the main site.|
|Maximum Inactive Versions||The maximum number of inactive versions of a file StorNext keeps track of for recovery purposes.|
|Tape Drive Pool||Specifies the drive pool to use with the policy. If you specify a drive pool, the drive pool name must be defined before any data operation can occur.|
|Media Email Warning Limit||The warning limit for the number of media that can be allocated in the policy class. If you specify an amount at this field, when the storage disk reaches the number of media you specify, you receive an email message warning that the device is nearing the capacity for the number of media. The maximum number for the limit is 65,000.|
|Media Limit||The maximum number of media that are allowed in this policy class. When this limit is reached you will receive an email message warning. Files can still be stored in the policy class as long as there is room on the media that have already been used to store files in that policy class. The maximum number for the limit is 65,000.|
|Media Cleanup||This option determines the action StorNext applies to storage media after media are cleaned. Select return to scratch pool or keep in policy.|
|Stub Files||Select this option to enable the Stub File feature. When this feature is enabled, third-party applications can gather information about a file by reading a portion of the file (called a stub) rather than reading the entire file. When you enable stub file support for a storage policy, you must specify the size of the stub file (in kilobytes). When stub file support is enabled, the beginning portion of the file (up to the size you specified) remains on disk after data blocks are freed during policy management or space management.|
|Stub File Size (KB)||When the Stub File feature is enabled, specify the target size for the stub file in kilobytes.|
|Delay File Storage||The store candidates in the policy class must add up to the Minimum File Size (see below) before any of the files will be stored. When this option is enabled, files are stored based on the Minimum File Size parameter.|
|Minimum File Size (1 to 999 in MB or GB)||This value determines the minimum size (in megabytes or gigabytes) that all valid store candidates in the policy class combined must reach before they are stored. This field is enabled only if the Delay File Storage option is also enabled.|
|Maximum File Age (Hours)||This option works in conjunction with the Delay File Storage option so that files are stored based on the Minimum File Size parameter. As soon as any file in the policy class reaches the Maximum File Age, the files are stored. This value determines the time after which any valid store candidate in the policy is stored.|
|Retrieve to Affinity||This field enables you to indicate that you want StorNext to retrieve files to an affinity other than the primary affinity. To retrieve to an alternative affinity, select the desired affinity from the drop down list. To retrieve to the primary affinity, select None, which is the default value.|
|Compression (Q-Cloud only)||
This option allows you to enable compression on the data corresponding to the policy.
Note: Compression is only available for Q-Cloud-based policies. For additional information, see Client Side Compression and Encryption.
This option enables encryption of the data associated with the policy.
Client AES256 requests client-side encryption and is available only for Q-Cloud-based policies. For additional information, see Client Side Compression and Encryption.
Server AES256 S3 requests server-side AES256 encryption with S3-managed keys and is valid only if supported by the Object Storage system.
Server AES256 KMS requests server-side AES256 encryption using the AWS Key Management Service. By default, the AWS account default customer master key (CMK) will be used for encryption. Alternatively, a CMK that has been registered with the AWS Key Management Service may be specified with the Encryption Master Key parameter.
Note: The enabled encryption type must be compatible with the encryption setting on the object storage system. If the encryption types are not compatible, then Storage Manager might write-protect the media to prevent further unauthorized access.
|Encryption Master Key||
This option allows you to enter an optional customer master key for the Server AES256 KMS encryption type or to select an existing master key for the Client AES 256 encryption type.
For Client AES 256, if you intend to create a new master key, you can do so by selecting the Add New... option from the drop-down list.
The Relocation tab enables you to configure the Disk-to-Disk relocation feature. Disk-to-Disk relocation allows you to move data from one set of disks (disk stripe group) to another without affecting the file name space. In order to use this feature you must have a managed file system with at least two affinities configured.
The Relocation tab contains the following fields:
|Disk-to-Disk Relocation||To enable this feature, from the drop-down list, select the destination disk to which you want to move data. Select None, the default value, to disable this feature.|
|File Age Before Relocation||When Disk-to-Disk relocation is enabled, specify the number of seconds, minutes, hours or days a file must reside on a disk before file relocation commences. Enter the number in the first field, and the unit of measure in the second pull-down field. The minimum value is 5 minutes.|
The Steering tab enables you to configure file steering, which allows you to direct a copy of a file to a designated drive pool. This is normally used when you want to direct two or more copies of a file to different archives by putting the tape drive in separate pools and then setting the copy number of the file to go to that pool. You can also use this feature to route copies of the file to different media types, including storage disks. In addition, you can manage the number of tape drives to use per store policy and define the copy order on retrieves.
The Steering tab contains the following fields:
|Media Type||For each copy (1 - 4), from the Media Type list, select the media type for devices in the drive pool. This can be an actual device type such as LTO, Lattus, S3COMPAT, Q-Cloud, or a Storage Disk. If you select None for a given copy, the Media Format, Tape Drive Pool, and Drive Limit lists for that specific copy are grayed out, and you cannot configure the parameters for that specific copy.|
|Media Format||For each copy (1 - 4), from the Media Format list, select the media format for LTO devices in the drive pool. Select ANTF or LTFS. ANTF is the Quantum internal tape format. LTFS is the Linear Tape File System specification tape format. ANTF will format media with a single partition containing ANTF volume labels. This data partition will store StorNext file data. LTFS will format media with two partitions containing LTFS volume labels. The index partition will store LTFS metadata and the data partition will store StorNext file data.|
|Tape Drive Pool||For each copy (1 - 4), from the Tape Drive Pool list, select the specific drive pool to which you want to write that copy's data. A Tape Drive Pool must be defined before it can be selected. For more information, see Tools > Storage Manager > Drive Pools.|
|Drive Limit||For each copy (1 - 4) in the Drive Limit list, select the number of tape drives to use per policy and copy. The Drive Limit feature allows you to manage the number of drives used per store policy. The default is None; no limit will be set and all drives will be used on stores. The Drive Limit feature is not supported for Storage Disks or Object Storage.|
|Retrieve Order||For each copy (1 - 4) in the Retrieve Order list, select the order in which the copy should be used on a retrieve. For additional information, see About Retrieve Order.|
For each copy (1-4), enter a numerical duration and duration unit for the amount of time that a file remains unreferenced before the copy number can be removed by the Copy Expiration feature. For additional information, see About Copy Expiration.
Note: All copy numbers may be separately configured for expiration, in which case the file is automatically removed after all copies have expired. Copy expiration configuration changes to the class policy apply immediately to all the files in the class.
Select one of the following duration values, and enter the number of units of that duration:
|Restore On Reference||
For each copy (1-4), you may enable the Restore On Reference feature to restore the expired copy after a file is referenced.
Note: After the file is restored, the file's access time is updated.
For additional information, see About Copy Expiration.
You can manage the order in which copies are used for retrieval either by using the Retrieve Order feature on the Steering tab or by defining the order using the policy class commands,
fsmodclass. If the retrieve order is not explicitly defined, the default retrieve order is used, which retrieves the copies in the order of their copy number, with the exception that copy 2 is always retrieved last.
For example, to create a policy class class1 with three copies enabled, using the first available copy in the order copy 2, copy 1, and then copy 3:
To modify a policy class to retrieve copy 2 first, followed by copy 3 and then copy 1:
The Copy Expiration feature provides for automatic removal of copies based on the time since the last access of a file, which allows file copies to be stored on mid-range-performance storage without requiring excessive capacity or excessive administration. This simplifies management of high-performance low-capacity storage tiers.
Old data can be purged automatically to make room for new data. When a file copy has expired and needs to be retrieved from a lower-performance tier, the copy can be stored again and then deleted again after a configurable amount of inactivity. For example, consider a class policy that calls for the storage of two copies: one on sdisk and one on tape. The class copy configuration could state that the sdisk copy should be expired after a file has not been accessed for 30 days. This would free sdisk for use by more recently accessed files, which could improve retrieve-latency performance for data that has been removed from disk.
The Copy Expiration feature is configurable per class per copy. Individual copy numbers may be configured to be expired when a file has not been referenced for a specified amount of time, and optionally to be restored after the file is referenced, which updates the file's access time. All copy numbers may be configured for expiration, in which case the file is automatically removed after all copies have expired.
Note: Copy expiration configuration changes to the class policy apply immediately to all files in the class.
The automatic aging and deletion process is driven by an expiration-time value that is added to the access-time value of each file, to be compared to the current time to determine the eligibility of a copy for deletion.
For example, you could have two policies which are schedule to perform the following:
- One policy identifies the eligible copies.
- One policy deletes the eligible copies.
- When a new file or a new version of an existing file is created, Copy Expiration does not apply until after all of the file's copies have been made.
- When a copy number is expired, all versions of that copy number are removed.
- When a file that has expired copies is accessed, expired copies that have been configured for restore-on-reference are recreated. The effect is delayed when the file is on disk as compared to when the file is truncated. Accessing the on-disk file does not need to initiate a retrieval, so the Storage Manager subsystem is not notified of the file activity. The next notification and opportunity for action occurs when the file is being truncated, at which point the truncation is delayed while the copies have been restored.
Note: You can also manually delete copies. The results are the same as with automatic deletions, except that the expiration-time value is irrelevant.
The process of removing copies places a heavy burden on the Storage Manager metadata database, which is proportional to the total number of file copies and the total number of files in the policy class. Quantum recommends that you schedule the copy removal during periods of low demand on the StorNext Metadata Controller.
In the image below, the StorNext GUI is used to configure three copies to sdisk (1), tape (2), and tape (3), which expire in 15 days, 1 year, and 3 years after the last access respectively. The Restore On Reference option is enabled for the first two copies, which means that the copies will be recreated for the current version if the file is accessed after one or both of the copies has expired. The third copy may have more than one version, but only the current version will be recreated. Because all copies are configured for expiration, the file automatically will be removed from disk after the last copy expires.
Note: The policy may also be configured to immediately truncate the file on disk after the last copy expires.
Note: If you configured a policy that contains copies that have all been configured for Copy Expiration, the following confirmation dialog appears.
Configuration Using the Command Line Interface
You can use any of the following commands to configure the Copy Expiration feature:
- Execute the
fsmodclasscommand to configure copies to expire per class.
- Execute the
fsschedulecommand to configure scheduled processing.
- Execute the
fsclassinfocommand to display, for each class, the expiration and restore-on-reference settings per copy and the expire-all-copies setting.
- Execute the
fsexpcopycommand for manual expirations and file deletions (when all copies are expired).
fsfileinfocommand to display the expiration status for a file in the Expired Copies field with a value for the number of expired copies followed by a parenthesized comma-separated list of copy numbers that are expired.
- Execute the
fsschedulecommand to schedule processing of all Storage Manager features.
For additional information on all the commands listed above, refer to the StorNext Man Pages Reference Guide.
The following are examples of the
/usr/adic/TSM/logs/tac/tac_00 log messages from the scheduled running of the
fsexpcopy feature. In the example below, both copies can be expired, which results in the deletion of the file from the file system.
fsexpcopy ... FILEnm: NA key: 33 ino: 72 gen: 1 - … : 1 expired
fsexpcopy ... FILEnm: NA key: 33 ino: 72 gen: 1 - … : 2 expired
fs_async ... FILEnm: /stornext/snfs1/p1/foo key: 33 ino: 140737488355400.1 - removed from disk (NOT recoverable)
In the following example, a file with copies 1 and 2 is in a policy configured for 3 copies with expiration for copies 1 and 2, but not for copy 3. An error is logged for the file because the policy is not configured to expire all copies, which is what would happen if copies 1 and 2 expire. A file can be in this state if it was created when the policy was configured to make 2 copies and then the policy was changed to 3 copies. The expiration feature is designed to prevent expiration of the last copy unless policy is explicitly configured to allow that. In this example, either copy 1 or copy 2 could be the last copy remaining, depending on configured expiration intervals and on manual expirations that were executed before automatically scheduled ones.
The Schedule tab allows you to enable or disable the Store Files Automatically feature. When this feature is enabled, StorNext automatically stores files for the current storage policy. If this feature is disabled, Quantum recommends that the files for the policy class be stored by scheduled events. (Scheduled events are certain activities which you can set up to run at specified times using StorNext’s schedule. For more information, see Tools > Storage Manager > Scheduler)
The Schedule tab contains the following field:
- Store Files Automatically: Select this option to enable the Store Files Automatically feature.
The Associated Directories tab enables you to view or delete existing relation points (directories) in the file system for the policy, and to add new relation points.
Note: Review the
content for the CLI command
fsaddrelation, in the
latest version of the StorNext Man Pages Reference Guide for information on limitations and constraints.
The Associated Directories tab contains the following fields:
- File System: From the drop-down list, select the file system for which you want to view, delete or add relation points.
- Directory: Select the directory you want to add, or type the name of a new directory in the field to the left of the Create Directory button. Click Add to add that directory as a new relation point.
- Associated Directories: This area displays any existing associated directories.
To delete a directory (relation point) listed under the Associated Directories heading, select the desired one and click Delete.
Note: The directory must be empty before you can delete it.
Caution: This particular delete function does not provide a confirmation message, so be absolutely sure you want to delete the selected relation point before you click Delete. The selected relation point is permanently deleted after you click Delete.