The following procedure describes how to create a new file system. The number of file systems you can add is limited only by the number of disks available for configuration.
On the Configuration menu, click File Systems. The Configuration > File System page displays all currently configured file systems.
Note: You can also access this page from the StorNext Configuration Wizard by choosing the File Systems option.
Click New to add a new file system.
Enter the following fields:
- File System Name: Enter the name for the new file system.
Mount Point: Enter the mount point for the new file system, or accept the displayed default mount point.
Storage Manager: Select this option if you want this file system to be managed by StorNext Storage Manager.
Note: If you plan to protect the contents of the file system using FlexSync, do not select the Storage Manager option. FlexSync does not support Storage Manager protected file systems. For additional information, see the FlexSync Documentation Center.
Replication/Deduplication: Select this option if you would like to enable data replication/deduplication on the new file system.
Note: The StorNext Replication and Deduplication options are not supported with FlexSync and cannot be combined with either of the options. For additional information, see the FlexSync Documentation Center.
Stripe Group Configuration: Select Generated or Manual. When you choose Generated, StorNext creates the file system with typical parameters after you enter basic configuration information. If you select Manual, you are given the opportunity to manually create the file system by specifying all parameters. If you select Manual configuration, exit this procedure and proceed to Manual Configuration.
- If you select Generated configuration, click Continue to proceed to the second configuration page.
Complete the following fields:
RAID Type: Select the RAID type that corresponds to your system configuration from the drop-down list.
Note: If you are using a StorNext G300 Gateway Appliance, the default value is Quantum Disk.
Data Disks per LUN: The number of data disks per LUN.
Segment Size (Bytes): The amount of data that will be written to one drive in a RAID LUN before writing data to the next drive in that LUN. Configure the Segment Size using the RAID user interface.
Data Stripe Breadth: The amount of data that StorNext writes to a LUN before switching to the next LUN within a stripe group. For best performance in many RAIDs, you can set the Data Stripe Breadth to a value resulting from the following calculation:Data Stripe Breadth Value = Segment Size x Disks per LUN
Note: Required fields are marked by an asterisk (*).
Select one or more disks to assign to the file system.
Note: Use the check-box column to select or deselect.
After selecting one or more disks, click Meta to designate any disks to be used for metadata, or click Journal to any disks for journaling. A disk can be used for both metadata and journaling.
In the field to the left of the Label button, enter a label name. Click Label to apply the label name to the selected labels. Click Unlabel to remove the label name from selected labels.
After you are finished entering label information, click Assign to assign the selected disks to the file system. Click Unassign to remove existing associations between disks and the file system. For example, if you assign disks erroneously, clicking Unassign is an easy way to remove associations and reassign disks.
Click the arrows beside the headings Advanced Parameters and Stripe Group/Disk Management to display that information. If desired, make any changes in these areas.
When you are satisfied with the file system parameters, click Apply. StorNext automatically configures and mounts the file system based on the information you entered.
If you chose Manual Configuration, you must complete the fields on the Advanced Parameters tabs and the Stripe Group/Disk Management fields.
Note: If necessary, click the arrow to the left of these headings to display the tabs and fields.
When you are finished entering Advanced Parameters and Stripe Group/Disk Management information for the manually configured file system, click Apply to save your changes and create the file system.
When a message informs you that the file system was successfully created, click OK.
The Allocation tab contains fields that affect how resources are allocated on your file system.
Journal Size: Defines the size of the file system journal.
Strategy: Defines the method for choosing stripe groups when allocating disk blocks. Options are Round, Fill, or Balance.
Reserved Space: Enables delayed allocations on clients. Reserved space is a performance feature that allows clients to perform buffered writes on a file without first obtaining real allocations from the metadata controller. The allocations are performed later during periodic cache synchronization.
Note: If the Reserved Space option is not enabled, slightly more disk space will be available, but file fragmentation may increase and performance may not be satisfactory.
Stripe Align Size: Defines the minimum allocation size to trigger automatic stripe-aligned allocations.
Inode Stripe Width: If non-zero, causes large files to have their allocations striped across stripe groups in chunks of the specified size.
Allocation Session Reservation Size: The Allocation Session Reservation feature optimizes on-disk allocation behavior. Allocation requests occur whenever a file is written to an area that has no actual disk space allocated, and these requests are grouped into sessions. The amount you specify in this field determines the size of the chunk of space reserved for a session.
In the first field enter the desired chunk size. At the second field specify the chunk unit of measure (B=bytes, KB=kilobytes, MB=megabytes, GB=gigabytes, TB=terabytes). For more information about the Allocation Session Reservation feature, refer to the StorNext File System Tuning Guide.
Affinity Preference: If checked, permits files of a particular affinity to have their allocations placed on other available stripe groups (with non-exclusive affinities) when the stripe groups of their assigned affinity do not have sufficient space. Otherwise, allocation attempts will fail with an out-of-space error.
For additional information, see Affinity.
To add a new entry to the Auto Affinities table, type a file extension (omit the "." dot), select an affinity from the Affinity menu, and click Add. Use the file extension "*" (asterisk) to indicate "all other" file extensions that are not explicitly listed. The Affinity menu will list only affinities that are currently assigned to a stripe group of this file system. The affinity NoAffinity indicates that allocations will be targeted at stripe groups that have no affinity. To delete one or more entries, check any rows to delete, and click Delete.
Each unique file extension can be targeted at only one affinity. However, each affinity may serve as the allocation target for more than one file extension. To sort the Auto Affinities table by file extension or affinity name, click the File Extension or Affinity column title, respectively. Multiple clicks cause the sort order to alternate between ascending and descending alphabetic order.
The Performance tab fields allow you to adjust parameters for optimized performance.
Buffer Cache Size: Defines the amount of memory used by the FSM process for caching metadata.
Inode Cache Size: Defines the number of inodes that can be cached in the SNFS server. The default and minimum setting for the cache size is 16.
Use Physical Memory Only: When this option selected, the file system will use only physical memory, not swapped or paged.
High Priority FSM: Determines whether the FSM process should run with real-time priority.
The Debug tab fields allow you to enable or disable debugging and set parameters for the debug log.
Enable Debugging: Enables detailed file system debug tracing. When debug tracing is enabled, file system performance could be significantly reduced.
Debug Log Settings: Settings to turn on debug functions for the file system server. The log information may be useful if a problem occurs. A Quantum Technical Assistance Center representative may ask for certain debug options to be activated to analyze a file system or hardware problem.
Maximum Log Size: Defines the maximum number of bytes (size) to which a StorNext Server log file can grow. When the log file reaches the specified size, it is rolled and a new log is started. In this situation, the two log files might use twice the maximum log size space specified in this field. The range is from 1 to 32 megabytes.
Maximum Number of Logs: Determines the number of rolled logs kept. Choices range from 4 to 64.
OP Hang Limit (Seconds): Defines the time threshold (in seconds) used by the FSM process to discover hung operations.
The Features tab fields allow you to enable or disable various file system-related features.
- I/O Tokens: Allows you to select which coherency model should be used when different clients open the same file, concurrently. If I/O Tokens is disabled, then the coherency model uses 3 states: exclusive, shared, and shared write. If a file is exclusive, only one client at a time can use the file. Shared indicates that multiple clients can have the file open but only in read only mode. This allows clients to cache data in memory. Shared write indicates that multiple clients can have the file open and at least one client has the file open for write. In this mode, coherency is resolved by using DMA I/O and no caching of data.
The Features tab fields allow you to enable or disable various file system-related features.
I/O Tokens: Allows you to select which coherency model should be used when different clients open the same file, concurrently. If I/O Tokens is disabled, then the coherency model uses 3 states: exclusive, shared, and shared write. If a file is exclusive, only one client at a time can use the file. Shared indicates that multiple clients can have the file open but only in read only mode. This allows clients to cache data in memory. Shared write indicates that multiple clients can have the file open and at least one client has the file open for write. In this mode, coherency is resolved by using DMA I/O and no caching of data.
If I/O Tokens is enabled, there are two cases:
- If all the file opens are read-only, no token is used and all clients can read and cache data. In other words, writes are not allowed.
- If at least one client opens the file for write, each I/O performed by a client must have a token. In other words, clients can do many I/Os while they have the token, and can use the cache until it is invalidated.
As a best practice, if you have multiple writers on a file, enable I/O Tokens, unless you know that the granularity and length of I/Os are safe for DMA.
Note: File locking does not prevent read-modify-write across lock boundaries.
For backward compatibility, if a client opens a file from a prior StorNext release that does not support I/O Tokens, then the coherency model reverts to the Shared Write model using DMA I/O, but on a file-by-file basis.
Note: If the I/O Tokens option is changed and the MDC is restarted, then the files that were open at that time continue to operate in the model before the change. To switch these files to the new value of I/O Tokens, all applications must close the file and wait for a few seconds and then re-open it. Or, if the value was switched from enabled to disabled, then a new client can open the file and all clients are transparently switched to the old model on that file.
For additional information, see StorNext File System Data Coherence.
Security Model: Determines the scheme for specifying and enforcing security policies. The available options are legacy, unixpermbits, and acl. The default value is legacy.
- If the Security Model is legacy, the Unix Id Mapping field is grayed out (disabled); however, the Windows Security option and the Enforce ACLs option remain enabled.
If the Security Model is acl, the Unix Id Mapping field is not grayed out; however, the Windows Security and the Enforce ACLs are grayed out (disabled).
If the Security Model is acl, the Unix Id Mapping field is not allowed to be none. You must select a value from the Unix Id Mapping list.
- Unix Id Mapping: Determines the Unix Id mapping. The available options are none , algorithmic, and winbind. The default value is none.
- Windows Security: Determines whether Windows ACLs are enabled for the file system.
- Enforce ACLs: Determines whether ACLs are enforced on XSan clients.
- Windows Global ShareMode: Determines whether Windows Global ShareMode is enabled for the file system.
- Quotas: Determines whether the Quota feature is enabled for the file system. Quotas has an indirect relationship with security in that it requires a Windows Security Descriptor (SD) to track the owner of a file to correctly maintain their quota allotment.
Note: You cannot use the StorNext GUI to set the quotas, so
you must use
snquota to modify the quotas of individual users. However, you cannot enable or disable quotas entirely through that interface. Although you cannot directly set user and group quotas using the StorNext GUI, directory quotas can be set on the Manage Quotas page (for additional information, see Tools > File Systems > Manage Quotas).
Quota Logs Retention Period: If Quotas is enabled, you can configure the length of time (Days, Weeks, Years) to retain the Quota logs. In other words, Quota logs are not retained after the length of time determined by the Quota Logs Retention Period value.
Named Streams: Determines whether a file system includes support for the Xsan Named Streams feature. Accessing files with Named Streams from a non-Xsan client is not supported. Also, Named Streams enabled file systems cannot be configured as Storage Manager, Replication or Deduplication enabled file systems. The Named Streams feature enables the storing of additional file system metadata. Because of this, the Named Streams feature cannot be disabled after it has been applied to a file system.
- Spotlight Proxy: Determines if Spotlight proxy is enabled for the file system. For additional information, see Configure Spotlight Proxy.
Use Active Directory SFU: Determines if Active Directory is enabled for the file system.
File Locks: Determines whether the FSM tracks and enforces file locks across all clients.
- FileLock Resync Timeout: Defines the timeout for clients re-registering file locks following FSM failover.
Metadata Archive: Lets you enable or disable metadata archive creation by the FSM process. A metadata archive logs file system operations and is a key piece of restoring a file system after a disaster on non-managed or managed file systems. By default, metadata archive creation is disabled on non-managed file systems, and enabled on managed file systems.
- Metadata Archive Days: Allows you to set the number of days of metadata history to keep available in the Metadata Archive. The default value is zero (no metadata history).
- Metadata Archive Cache Size: Allows you to configure the size of the memory cache for the Metadata Archive. The default value is 2 GiB.
- Metadata Archive Search: Allows you to enable or disable the Metadata Archive Search capability in Metadata Archive. If enabled, Metadata Archive supports advanced searching capabilities that are used by various other StorNext features. Metadata Archive Search is enabled by default and should only be disabled if performance issues are experienced.
The LDAP tab fields allow you to enter parameters related to LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, an application protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/IP).
Unix File Creation Mode on Windows: The number of mode bits for UNIX files
Unix Directory Creation Mode on Windows: The number of mode bits for UNIX directories.
Unix Nobody UID on Windows: UNIX user ID to use if no other mapping can be found.
Unix Nobody GID on Windows: UNIX group ID to use if no other mapping can be found.
Unix ID Fabrication on Windows: Allows you to enable or disable using fabricated IDs on a per-file system basis. If enabled, Windows user IDs are mapped using fabricated IDs.
The Special tab fields allow you to enable or disable special file system-related features.
Inode Delete Maximum: Determines the throttling factor for reclaiming space from files allocated using PerfectFit mode.
- Trim on Close: Determines whether excess allocations are removed from files when they are closed.
- Global Super User:
Enable this option (check the box) to allow a user with super-user
privileges to assert these privileges on the file system.
- If the Global Super User option is enabled, super users have global access rights on the file system. This selection is the same as the maproot=0 directive in the Network File System (NFS).
- If the Global Super User option is not enabled, super users can modify only files they can access, like any other users.
File System Capacity Threshold: Defines the file system fill level (in percent) that triggers a RAS event.
Extent Count Threshold: Defines the number of extents in a file required to trigger a fragmentation RAS event.
Remote Notification: Determines whether to enable partial support for cluster-wide Windows directory event notification.
To modify an existing stripe group, under the Stripe Groups heading select the stripe group you want to modify, and then change its properties as desired.
To add a new stripe group to the file system, click Add and then enter the remaining fields for the new stripe group.
When you are finished on the Stripe Group tab, click Apply to save your changes, or Cancel to abandon your changes.
- Stripe Group: Select the stripe group you want to modify or delete.
Add: Click this button to add a new stripe group.
Note: If the following indented fields are not displayed, they appear after you click Add. Likewise, after you delete a stripe group these fields may not be displayed.
- Name: Enter a name for the new stripe group, or skip this field to accept the displayed name.
- Breadth: Specify the stripe group breadth, which is the number of kilobytes (KB) that is read from or written to each disk in the stripe group.
- Content: Specify whether the stripe group will be used for metadata, journaling, or user data. You can specify one, two, or all of these content types.
Delete: Click this button to delete the currently selected stripe group.
WARNING: This particular delete function does not provide a confirmation message, so be absolutely sure you want to delete the selected stripe group before you click Delete. The selected stripe group is immediately deleted after you click Delete. This function is permanent and irreversible.
Affinity: An affinity is a label that allows you to control the physical location of files, by placing selected file types on specific stripe groups. Managed file systems are restricted to using only two affinities, which are used for Disk-to-Disk relocation Storage Manager policies. Managed file systems are limited to using the same two affinity names on all managed file systems. By default, the affinity names on a managed file systems are “Tier1” and “Tier2”.
For unmanaged file systems, using affinities is a two step process:
- Each stripe group can be assigned one or more affinities during file system configuration.
A directory is associated with each affinity.
For example, if you configure stripe group SG2 to have affinity AFF2 and then associate the directory special_files with affinity AFF2, all files put into special_files can exist only on the disks that make up SG2. Otherwise, the files put into that directory could exist on any stripe group or on any disk in the file system.
It makes sense to use affinities in environments where performance is critical. For example, you might want to constrain video files to a stripe group made of Fibre Channel disks tuned for video playback, but have audio files reside on slower SCSI disks in a different stripe group.
You cannot remove an affinity from a stripe group if that affinity is not assigned to another stripe group and the Auto Affinities table includes a file extension that is targeted at that affinity. Instead you must first update the Auto Affinities table to delete that auto affinity entry. See the Auto Affinities section for how to delete an auto affinity.
If you want to associate an affinity to the new stripe group, select the desired options.
- Exclusive: When this option is enabled, the selected stripe group is used exclusively for the affinity's files.
Specify the permission level for the stripe group:
- Full R/W (read/write)
- Read Only
- Quality of Service: Specify parameters for the Quality of Service (QOS) feature. QOS allows real-time applications to reserve a specified amount of bandwidth on the storage system. For more information, see Quality of Service Bandwidth Management (QBM).
- RealTime I/O/sec: The amount of I/O per second to reserve for realtime applications.
- RealTime I/O MB/sec: The amount of I/O space per second to reserve for realtime applications.
- Non-RealTime I/O/sec: The amount of I/O per second to reserve for non-realtime applications.
- Non-RealTime I/O MB/sec: The amount of I/O space per second to reserve for non-realtime applications.
- RealTime Timeout secs: The timeout interval to reserve for realtime applications.
- Disk Assignment: Select one or more disks to assign to the file system. Press and hold Shift or Ctrl to select multiple disks.
- Label: In the field to the left of the Label button, enter a label name. Click Label to apply the label name to the selected disks.
- Unlabel: Click Unlabel to remove label names from selected disks.
- Assign: Click Assign to assign selected disks to the file system stripe group.
- Unassign: Click Unassign to remove previous associations between disks and the stripe group.